How to choose the right water tank?

It’s a rainy day, and you’re standing by the window with your coffee, thinking to yourself, “If the rain doesn’t stop soon, why don’t we store this massive amount of freshwater?” And you’re on the correct track.

We will explain the various types of water tanks, their materials, the criteria that influence water tank selection, and their maintenance in this article.

This may help you to know more about water tanks and fill your requirement.

Water tanks

Because water is so crucial in our daily lives, it is only natural and necessary to devise and implement methods or instruments to optimize its use.

Water tanks are containers for holding water for a variety of purposes, including drinking water for those living in areas with poor water quality, domestic use such as food processing and irrigation where rainwater harvesting is ideal for irrigation – not only because it is free of chemicals and chlorine, but it’s also easily accessible and as an emergency water source for dust suppression and firefighting.

However, water tanks are considered an Environmentally-friendly solution for using stored water during drought months.

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Different types of water tanks

These are the most common water tanks:

Underground water tanks

The underground water tanks are usually larger than the overhead water tanks.

Underground water tanks are perfect when saving space is important.

Septic systems or septic tanks, holding potable water and stormwater are the main application of underground tanks.

Above-ground water tanks

Above-ground water tanks are smaller than underground water tanks and can hold less water.

These tanks are popular in residential and heavy industry applications due to their cost-effectiveness and ease of installation.

Pillow Tanks

Using a pillow tank has numerous advantages.

Pillow tanks are less expensive than other forms, provide portable water storage, can hold potable or effluent and have a large capacity

Folding Tanks

From its name, it offers another portable water storage, easy to transport and easy to set up.

Water tanks materials

Because water is sensitive to the container in which it is contained and it is vital to save water as much as possible, the material of water tanks is an important consideration.

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Polyethylene (plastic) or poly tanks:

 are the most popular tank material as they are both cost-effective and long-lasting.

They usually come in cylindrical, square and rectangular shapes and various sizes.

Metal tanks:

are made from corrugated or flat-rolled metal such as Stainless Steel, which may be galvanized or coated.


 is a material that ensures that the tank is rust and chemical-resistant. This option is quite expensive.

Criteria that influence water tank selection

Water tanks features

In addition to water tanks’ materials, it’s important to take into consideration water tanks’ color, UV protection and Bisphenol A (BPA) free.


Which is influenced by:

1. Design & Configurations of water tanks

The reservoir is the most prevalent water storage configuration, while standpipes, reservoirs, and composite elevated tank (CET) designs are the main types of glass-coated bolted steel tank layouts.

2. Manufacturing Process

3. Tank Construction

4. Water Tanks Installation Site

Before the tank is delivered to the site, the tank base must be prepared.

5. Water needed

On average a four-person family consumes around 600 Liters per day, which comes to 120 to 200 Liters per person.

What size water tank you require will be determined by how you want to use the water in your tank.

Water Tanks Maintenance

Benefits of water tanks maintenance

Water tanks maintenance is needed to ensure water quality and for tanks to last longer here are some of the benefits of tanks maintenance:

1. Service life is extended.

2. Improved equipment efficiency.

3. Improved water quality.

4. Repair and replacement expenditures are reduced.

Guidelines for Water Storage Tank Maintenance

1. Regular Tank Inspection Checklist

It’s critical to examine your roof or catchment area that including Roofs, Gutters, leaf filters, first flush devices, Inflow and overflow screens, Internal inspection and Tank fittings, pump, mains switch and pipes

2. Ensure that the coating is in good condition

A high-quality coating is critical for lowering maintenance expenses over time.

The coating is your tank’s primary defense against corrosion.

Metal loss can be reduced with high-quality coatings and water tank liners, which means you won’t have to pay for costly welding repairs.

3. Eliminate Algae

Use a completely opaque water storage tank to get rid of algae.

The use of an opaque tank blocks off light, making it impossible for algae to grow.

In addition, add 1/4 teaspoon of bleach to each gallon of stored water.

Bleach can kill existing algae while also preventing the growth of new algae.

Use a 5.25 percent hypochlorite bleach, and never mix bleach and chlorine in the same container.

Either one or the other should be used. Use 4 parts chlorine for every 1 million parts of water if you’re using it.

Water Tank Treatment

In water tanks, dangerous organic elements such as biofilm, bacteria, fungi and viruses begin to accumulate over time.

This organic material can have a detrimental impact on the aroma and taste of water, as well as being hazardous to your health.

The accumulation of biofilm in pipes can also affect your system’s flow rate and lifetime.

Adding Disinfectants to water tanks is necessary to treat water tanks from bacteria and other pathogenic organisms.

Disinfectants such as pure Chlorine Dioxide is recommended.

Chlorine produces several harmful by-products, including carcinogenic trihalomethanes, when used to treat water kept in tanks.

Chlorine Dioxide, on the other hand, does not produce any of these hazardous by-products.

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Water Tank Linings and Coatings

Concrete and metal components are frequently coated with protective coatings to prevent costly deterioration.

They only provide enough substrate protection if they stay unchanged and are applied flawlessly, with no blisters, honeycombs, pores, pinholes, or punctures.

While most coatings are made of epoxy, polyurethane, or polyurea, there are some interesting new hybrids on the market.

The Most Common Coating Materials

1. Coatings made of epoxy.

In damp situations such as wet wells, maintenance holes, and clarifiers, epoxies (usually high solids, amine-cured) are widely utilized.

These acid-resistant coatings are typical of high construction and provide long-term moisture and vapor corrosion protection by inhibiting water penetration.

2. Coatings made of polyurethane.

Polyurethanes are typically two-component, aromatic and high solids.

They can be flexible or rigid, and they can withstand high acid concentrations.

3. Spray-applied Polyurea coatings are organic polymers that enable a quick return to service, flexibility and structural movement.

They may, however, allow for increased moisture vapor passage and are less effective for full immersion of clarifier components.

Common Coatings Application Mistakes

Insufficient Surface Preparation.

This step is critical because coatings only operate properly when the substrate to which they are applied is properly prepared.

Otherwise, coatings are vulnerable to premature failure, exposing concrete to wastewater dangers.

Brush-off blast cleaning is the most effective surface preparation procedure (also known as sweep blast).

Outgassing Concrete Coating Application Blisters, pinholes, or pimples caused by outgassing can lead to delamination.

To avoid outgassing, apply the coating at night or when the temperature drops – never when it is warm, as sunlight and warmth can extract water vapor from concrete.

Directly apply a hydrophobic coating to concrete with a moisture content of more than 4%.

Excess moisture content can generate honeycombs, and pores, making it practically impossible to reliably apply the coating to the manufacturer’s stated thickness.

Using a protective coating system that does not meet the needs of the site.

Consider the moisture exposure duration, physical and chemical conditions and the prepared substrate state while selecting the appropriate coating.

Applying high-performance protective coatings by unqualified contractors protective coating systems should only be applied by highly skilled applicators.


[1] THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATER TANKS, by Royal Liner, Jan 12, 2021, Royal liner [online] Available at:

[2] H Lindholm, How to Select a Water Tank, Bushman [online] Available at:

[3] 9 Common Types of Water Storage Tanks and How They’re Used, National Storage Tank Blog [online] Available at:

[4] Gwm water, How much water you use, 11 February 2018 [online] Available at:


[6] Top Maintenance Tips for Water Storage Tanks, tait_flexiliner, Jul 23, 2019, Flexi-liner, [ online] Available at:

[7] The Most Common Tank Coatings & Application Mistakes, March 25, 2022, [online] Available at:

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